H-type tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) may lead to chronic respiratory disease if the diagnosis is delayed. Long-standing fistula causes esophageal distention which is named as pneumoesophagus or megaesophagus and possibly affects the motility of the esophageal body which may also be encountered as a part of tracheoesophageal anomalies. Both dysmotility and megaesophagus may mimic achalasia radiologically and the patient may be advised an unnecessary esophagocardiomyotomy. The authors report a 15-year-old adolescent with H-type TEF who has been diagnosed during investigations for chronic respiratory disease due to presumptive diagnosis of achalasia. The authors emphasize that a complete anatomical and functional evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract should be done before recommending operation for achalasia in patients with chronic respiratory disease. H-type TEF should be investigated to avoid unnecessary cardiomyotomy.