AGING CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH, vol.33, no.9, pp.2379-2392, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Background and aims The purpose of this review was two-fold. First, we aimed to provide an in-depth glance on the relationship between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) dysregulation and sarcopenia. Second, we aimed to touch upon potential treatments of sarcopenia (including RAS blockers, vitamin D, and exercise) in light of the pertinent literature. Methods Currently available research regarding the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers on knee extensor strength, grip strength, chair stand test, gate speed together with the effects of exercise on muscle mass, strength, physical performance, blood pressure and cognitive tests (particularly in older adults) was reviewed. Results Although some studies have shown favorable effects of ACEIs on muscle strength and/or physical function tests, some studies have reported no/negative association in between. The favorable impact of exercise on reducing blood pressure is shown, and exercise treatment is widely recommended in the relevant literature. Different types of exercises (aerobic, resistance, dancing, music movement, water-based, golf, knitting activities or multicomponent exercises) have shown improvement in cognitive functions as well. Conclusion Classical RAS activity results in deleterious effects not only on the cardiovascular but also on the neuromusculoskeletal system. Therefore, treatments targeting inhibition of the classical RAS activity seem to be important in the management of several age-related pathologies, including sarcopenia. As such, ACEIs, vitamin D, exercise, and healthy diet can have prominent effects not only on the modulation of RAS but also on physical and cognitive functions and sarcopenia as well.