Contemporaneous alkaline and calc-alkaline series in Central Anatolia (Turkey): Spatio-temporal evolution of a post-collisional Quaternary basaltic volcanism

Dogan-Kulahci G. D. , TEMEL A. , GOURGAUD A., Varol E. , GUILLOU H., DENIEL C.

JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH, cilt.356, ss.56-74, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 356
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2018.02.012
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.56-74


This study focuses on spatio-temporal evolution of basaltic volcanism in the Central Anatolian post-collisional Quaternary magmatic province which developed along a NE-SW orientation in Turkey. This magmatic province consists of the stratovolcanoes Erciyes (ES) and Hasandag (HS), and the basaltic volcanic fields of Obruk-Zengen (OZ) and Karapinar (KA). The investigated samples range between basic to intermediate in composition (48-56 wt% SiO2), and exhibit calc-alkaline affinity at ES whereas HS, OZ and KA are alkaline in composition. Based on new K-Ar ages and major element data, the oldest basaltic rock of ES is 1700 +/- 40 ka old and exhibits alkaline character, whereas the youngest basaltic trachyandesite is 12 +/- 5 ka old and calc-alkaline in composition. Most ES basaltic rocks are younger than 350 ka. All samples dated from HS are alkaline basalts, ranging from 543 +/- 12 ka to 2 +/- 7 ka old. With the exception of one basalt, all HS basalts are similar to 100 ka or younger in age. K-Ar ages range from 797 +/- 20 ka to 66 +/- 7 ka from OZ. All the basalt samples are alkaline in character and are older than the HS alkaline basalts, with the exception of the youngest samples. The oldest and youngest basaltic samples from KA are 280 +/- 7 ka and 163 +/- 10 ka, respectively, and are calc-alkaline in character. Based on thermobarometric estimates samples from OZ exhibit the highest cpx-ligidus temperature and pressure. For all centers the calculated crystallization depths are between 11 and 28 km and increase from NE to SW. Multistage crystallization in magma chamber(s) located at different depths can explain this range in pressure. Harker variation diagrams coupled with least-squares mass balance calculations support fractional crystallization for ES and, to lesser extend for HS, OZ and KA. All basaltic volcanic rocks of this study are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE). The lack of negative anomalies for high field strength elements (HFSE; Y, Yb) and the La/Nb >1 favor a shallow lithospheric source for ES, HS, OZ and KA basaltic volcanic rocks, whereas some samples bear the trace element signature of an asthenospheric mantle source. The litho spheric mantle beneath Central Anatolia may have not been affected from asthenospheric mantle directly. Negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies and a positive Pb spike of ES, HS, OZ and KA may be ascribed to crustal contamination or as the imprints of the previous subduction processes. According to this study, and previous studies, the effect of subduction and/or crustal contamination in Central Anatolia decreased from the Miocene to the Quaternary, and the origin of the Quatemary basaltic rocks mainly derived from subduction-related magmas enriched with sediment input rather than to slab -derived fluids. Our calculated eruption ages for the four basaltic complexes show that spatial differences predominate, whereas temporal trends are difficult to discern due to limited age resolution. According to the available geochronological, petrological and geochemical data, alkaline and calc-alkaline volcanism occurred simultaneously from distinct parental magmas. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.