Purpose: The aim of the current study is to compare the effects of two corticosteroids, prednisolone acetate 1% (PA) and loteprednol etabonate 0.5% (LE), for the treatment of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced dry eye syndrome (DES) in rats. Methods: DES was established by topical administration of 0.2% BAC, a commonly used preservative in ophthalmic drugs, for 1 week. Rats were divided into 3 groups just after establishment of DES: PA-treated (Group 1, n=10), LE-treated (Group 2, n=10), and vehicle-treated (Group 3, n=10). Rats were treated by topical administration of PA, LE, or vehicle twice daily for 1 week. The Schirmer test, break-up time score, Fluorescein staining, Rose Bengal staining, and inflammatory index scoring (IIS) tests were performed at all weeks. After the end of the study, eyes of the rats were enucleated and analyzed using light microscopy. Results: The mean aqueous tear volume was significantly increased in both PA- and LE-treated rats (P<0.05), although decreased in vehicle-treated rats (P>0.05). Histologically, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in vehicle-treated rats, while inflammation induced by BAC was almost completely resolved in both PA- and LE-treated groups. Conclusions: In the current study, we showed that both PA and LE are effective treatments in a rat model of BAC-induced DES, which is commonly observed in clinics. No significant differences were observed between the 2 corticosteroids in the efficacy of BAC-induced type of DES treatment.