The Role of Bolus Residue and Its Relation with Respiratory Problems in Children with Esophageal Atresia


Dysphagia, vol.38, no.6, pp.1546-1550, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 38 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00455-023-10582-1
  • Journal Name: Dysphagia
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1546-1550
  • Keywords: Bolus residue, Children, Esophageal atresia, Respiratory problems, Swallowing
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Bolus residue is significant risk factor for postswallow aspiration. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the role of bolus residue and its relation with respiratory problems in children with esophageal atresia. Children were evaluated for demographic features, type of esophageal atresia, associated anomalies, and respiratory problems. The videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluation (VFSE) was performed, and scored by using the penetration aspiration scale (PAS), bolus residual score (BRS) and normalized residual ratio scale (NRRS). Children with and without respiratory problems were also compared in terms of aspiration and bolus residue. Forty-one children with a median age of 15 months (1–138 months), male:female ratio of 26:15 was included. 65.9% (n = 27) of children were type-C and 24.4% (n = 10) were type-A EA. In 61% (n = 25) of children had liquid aspiration (PAS ≥ 6) and 9.8% (n = 4) had aspiration in pudding consistencies. Children with aspiration in liquids had significantly higher NRRS and BRS scores in vallecular residue for pudding consistencies when compared to children without aspiration (p < 0.05). No difference was detected in terms of PAS scores and bolus residual parameters between children with and without respiratory problems (p > 0.05). Children with aspiration in liquids have higher scores of BRS and NRRS at the level of vallecular especially in pudding consistencies. VFSE findings for bolus residue did not show significant relation with respiratory problems. Respiratory morbidity in children with EA is multifactorial and may not only explained by bolus residuals and aspiration.