Cystatin C, Beta2 Microglobulin, N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, Retinol-Binding Protein, and Endothelin 1 Levels in the Evaluation of Sickle Cell Disease Nephropathy

Unal S., Kotan C., Delibas A., Oztas Y.

PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY, vol.32, no.4, pp.250-257, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Objectives: Renal involvement is common in sickle cell disease (SCD). Early demonstration of renal injury and commencement of appropriate treatment will increase survival and quality of life in these patients. We investigated renal manifestations in our pediatric and adult SCD patients and evaluated the role of cystatin C, Beta2 microglobulin (B2M), retinol-binding protein (RBP), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) to indicate renal damage. Methods: The study involved 45 pediatric and 10 adult patients with SCD and 20 healthy children and 10 healthy adults as a control. All the patients were questioned for possible renal manifestations. 24-hour urine samples were collected and glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) were calculated by using creatinine (GFR(creatinine)), Schwartz formula (GFR(Schwartz)), and cystatin C (GFR(cystatin) C). Blood and urine samples were collected and serum cystatin C, urine B2M, RBP, NAG, and ET-1 levels were measured. Results: Nocturnal enuresis and proteinuria were the most common renal manifestations in SCD patients. When the groups were compared in terms of GFR, GFR(creatinine) and GFRSchwartz levels were higher in group 1 and 2 patients than in control 1 and 2 patients (P < .05). Cystatin C, B2M, RBP, NAG, and ET-1 values were normal in both the patient and the control groups. However, B2M/creatinine levels were higher than 160 mu g/mg creatinine levels in 10 patients. Conclusions: Serum cystatin C, urine NAG, RBP, and ET-1 levels were found to be insufficient for the evaluation of SCD nephropathy. Increased B2M/creatinie levels can be valuable in estimating possible glomerular and tubular damage in SCD.