ReishiMax inhibits mTORC1/2 by activating AMPK and inhibiting IGFR/PI3K/Rheb in tumor cells

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ŞÖHRETOĞLU D., Zhang C., Luo J., Huang S.

SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND TARGETED THERAPY, vol.4, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) extracts, as dietary supplements, have been found to exert potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to the presence of polysaccharides and triterpenes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer action of G. lucidum extracts remains to be investigated. Here, we show that ReishiMax GLp, containing G. lucidum polysaccharides and triterpenes (GLPT), inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in human lung cancer cells (A549 and A427) and simultaneously suppressed the signaling pathways of mammalian target of rapamycin complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1 and mTORC2), respectively. Mechanistically, GLPT downregulated the phosphorylation and protein levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) as well as the protein level of RAS homolog enriched in brain (Rheb). In addition, GLPT also activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) network. This was evidenced by observations that GLPT increased the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha (T172) and its substrates tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2, 51387) and regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (raptor, S792). Ectopic expression of dominant-negative AMPK alpha partially mitigated the inhibitory effect of GLPT on mTORC1, indicating that GLPT inhibits mTORC1 partly by activating AMPK. The results suggest that G. lucidum extracts exert anticancer action at least partly by suppressing mTORC1/2 signaling via activation of AMPK and inhibition of IGFR/PI3K/Rheb in tumor cells.