BackgroundIndividuals with diabetes mellitus have difficulty solving problems in meaningful occupations and have similar difficulties with self-care regimens. We examined the effects of an occupation-based intervention supported with problem-solving therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus on participation in and satisfaction with meaningful occupations, diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy, preferred coping strategies and individual well-being.MethodsThis study was planned as a single-blind, randomised controlled study with a 3-month follow-up involving 67 adults with type 2 diabetes. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Diabetes Empowerment Scale, Brief COPE and five-item World Health Organisation Well-Being Index were used. This programme included evaluations, diabetes education, and problem-solving therapy. The intervention was conducted for 6 weeks, and each weekly session lasted approximately 60min. Differences between groups were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Friedman test was used to calculate group-time interaction differences (i.e., baseline, after 6 weeks and after 3 months).ResultsAll participants identified the most significant occupational performance problems in self-care as personal care. Significant improvement was reported in the intervention group compared to the control group regarding participation in meaningful occupation, satisfaction with performance, psychosocial self-efficacy, and well-being results (p<0.001) after the programme and 3 months of follow-up. Participant use of effective coping strategies, active coping and acceptance strategies, and self-efficacy, as revealed by the results, suggested improvement in favour of the intervention group (p<0.05).ConclusionsOccupation-based problem-solving therapy encourages participation in meaningful occupations and improves psychosocial self-efficacy, effective coping styles, and well-being in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Problem-solving therapies that incorporate individuals' priorities via meaningful occupation can be used to lead to a meaningful and quality life for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03783598. Retrospectively Registered. First Posted-December 21, 2018, Last Update Posted-February 18, 2020.