Aflatoxins (AFs) are important risks for human health due to their widespread presence in foods and environment. However, contamination risk of breast milk with different pollutants including AFs is high in today's life conditions. Since breast milk is a major nutrient for infants, feeding of infants with safe milk is essential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of AF M-1 and B-1 in breast milk samples collected from 75 mothers in Ankara, Turkey. AF M-1 and B-1 levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector following an extraction procedure. The limit of detection was found to be 5 ng/l. Both AFs were detected in diverse degrees in all breast milk samples: The level of AF M-1 were in the ranges of 60.90-299.99 ng/l, and AF B-1 were in the ranges of 94.50-4123.80 ng/l. These results pointed out the exposure of mothers and neonates to AF M-1 and B-1, and the necessity of further research on mycotoxin contamination both in foods and biological fluids as well as protection strategies. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.