Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known for their clinically useful effects in immunologic and inflammatory disorders. Although there is a huge volume of knowledge concerning the cellular and molecular effects of GCs, statements regarding their effects in multiple diseases at variable doses are not clear-cut owing to pharmacogenetic differences. The main actions of GCs in hematologic disorders have been related to their differentiation-inducing and apoptosis-inducing effects, but modification of several steps of the hematopoietic and/or immune pathway has also been reported. In our clinic, mega-dose methylprednisolone (MDMP) has been successfully used for treatment of different hematologic diseases, such as leukemias, bone marrow failure in aplastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, neutropenia, autoimmune diseases, and in some congenital hereditary diseases. Both clinical and experimental studies in our department revealed that MDMP was more effective than conventional dose steroids. It is interesting that MDMP can be curative in some congenital hereditary diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan syndrome. However, more research is required to clarify their roles in biology, physiology, and molecular genetics.