In immune thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP), phagocytic cells prematurely destroy platelets opsonized by anti-platelet auto-antibodies while residual platelets rescued from these autoimmune attacks are hyperfunctioning. The exact pathobiological basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Protein C inhibitor (PCI), a platelet alpha-granule pro-coagulant molecule, is released on activation of platelets. Serum amyloid A (SAA; an acute phase protein), however, inhibits platelet aggregation and modulates platelet adhesion. We aimed to assess circulating soluble plasma PCI and SAA concentrations in 17 patients with newly diagnosed ITP and ten healthy volunteers. Plasma PCI concentrations tended to be higher in ITP patients, despite absolute thrombocytopaenia, than in normal controls. SAA levels were significantly higher in ITP patients compared with the control group. We conclude that secretion of the alpha-granule PCI content of platelets could result from platelet activation, and that PCI may be the link between platelet microparticles and haemostatically active ITP platelets. Increased concentrations of SAA and PCI may interfere with the disordered and compensatory pro-coagulant mechanisms of ITP.