The concepts of efficiency and productivity are of vital importance in a world of limited resources. In this study, the productivity of state universities in Turkey is determined through data envelopment analysis, and the universities are ordered according to efficiency using a super efficiency model. Then, factors affecting efficiency are examined by Tobit and beta regression analysis; the results obtained from the two different methods are analyzed on a comparative basis. In the study, data from the 2014-2015 academic year are utilised to measure the training efficiency of 43 state universities in Turkey. As a result of data envelopment analysis, Gebze Technical University, Anadolu University, Middle East Technical University, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul University, Marmara University, Hacettepe University, Gazi University, Ankara University, and Ege University are found to be effective universities. Generally, 22% of state universities are found to be effective. In terms of the criteria discussed in this study, Cumhuriyet University has the lowest efficiency value. According to the results of the Tobit and beta regression and h-index, the number of graduated students improves the efficiency value of state universities, while the presence of medical schools decreases the efficiency value.