The comparison of the scores obtained by Bayesian nonparametric model and classical test theory methods*

Yurtcu M., KELECİOĞLU H., Boone E. L.

SCIENCE PROGRESS, vol.104, no.3, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 104 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/00368504211028371
  • Journal Name: SCIENCE PROGRESS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Single group design, Bayesian nonparametric model, test equating, covariates, equated scores, ITEM RESPONSE THEORY
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Bayesian Nonparametric (BNP) modelling can be used to obtain more detailed information in test equating studies and to increase the accuracy of equating by accounting for covariates. In this study, two covariates are included in the equating under the Bayes nonparametric model, one is continuous, and the other is discrete. Scores equated with this model were obtained for a single group design for a small group in the study. The equated scores obtained with the model were compared with the mean and linear equating methods in the Classical Test Theory. Considering the equated scores obtained from three different methods, it was found that the equated scores obtained with the BNP model produced a distribution closer to the target test. Even the classical methods will give a good result with the smallest error when using a small sample, making equating studies valuable. The inclusion of the covariates in the model in the classical test equating process is based on some assumptions and cannot be achieved especially using small groups. The BNP model will be more beneficial than using frequentist methods, regardless of this limitation. Information about booklets and variables can be obtained from the distributors and equated scores that obtained with the BNP model. In this case, it makes it possible to compare sub-categories. This can be expressed as indicating the presence of differential item functioning (DIF). Therefore, the BNP model can be used actively in test equating studies, and it provides an opportunity to examine the characteristics of the individual participants at the same time. Thus, it allows test equating even in a small sample and offers the opportunity to reach a value closer to the scores in the target test.