Effects of Virtual Reality on Transtibial Amputation Rehabilitation Outcomes: A Randomized Study

Sxahan T. Y., ERBAHÇECİ F.

Games for Health Journal, vol.12, no.6, pp.459-467, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1089/g4h.2023.0052
  • Journal Name: Games for Health Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.459-467
  • Keywords: Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation, Transtibial amputee, Virtual reality, Wearable technology
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: Virtual reality is widely used in patients with chronic musculoskeletal problems. However, the short-term effects on individuals with transtibial (TT) amputation during this process remain unclear. This study aimed at investigating the effects of virtual reality on rehabilitation outcomes in TT amputees. Methods: The study included 20 TT amputees who were using TT prostheses. The participants were divided into two groups randomly as follows: physiotherapy (PT) and virtual reality (VR). Participants were treated 3 days a week, for 4 weeks, and evaluations were made before and after treatment; a 6-minute walk test was used for performance, a single-leg balance test for balance, Trinity Amputation Prosthesis Experience Scale for prosthesis satisfaction, a 10-meter walking test for gait speed, and a wearable smart t-shirt to determine cadence. Results: It was found that there was a statistically significant difference in performance, balance, prosthesis satisfaction, cadence, and gait speed before and after PT (P < 0.05). There were differences in terms of performance, prosthesis satisfaction, balance, cadence, and gait speed before and after VR (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between PT and VR (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The 4 weeks of VR training improved performance, prosthesis satisfaction, balance, cadence, and gait speed in TT amputation rehabilitation similar to physiotherapy methods. The addition of VR training to amputation rehabilitation will bring improvements since it is a fun and safe intervention.