The aim of this study is to evaluate the institution of library and archive in Ancient Anatolia in the context of socio-economical and cultural structure. In this study, first the basic characteristics of the culture process of Ancient Anatolia were examined. Then, the institution of library and archive was explored mainly in the framework of the geographic, socio-economic and cultural structure. The survey method was used. It was concluded that the fundamental condition of existence of the institution of library and archive had been the high level of socio-economic growth that engendered the cultural development. While the institution of archive was one of the administrative units of the ancient cities, generally, library functioned chiefly as a means of social life spaces such as education, science, art, literature, culture, and religion. Moreover, the institution of library/archive had had an identity as a means of cultural rivalry among the cities in Ancient Anatolia. Libraries and archives have come into existence as an organic function of education and science. These institutions were founded and developed by the noblemen of the cities as prestige projects. The institution of library and archive in Ancient Anatolia and in neighboring civilizations had also had an identity in relation to the culture and phenomena of religion and Turkish bath.