There are more than 8000 rare diseases (RDs) that affect >5 % of the world's population. Many of the RDs have no effective treatment and lack of knowledge creates delayed diagnosis making management difficult. The emerging concept of the personalized medicine allows for early screening, diagnosis, and individualized treatment of human diseases. In this context, the discovery of biomarkers in RDs will be of prime importance to enable timely prevention and effective treatment. Since 80 % of RDs are of genetic origin, identification of new genes and causative mutations become valuable biomarkers. Furthermore, dynamic markers such as expressed genes, metabolites, and proteins are also very important to follow prognosis and response the therapy. Recent advances in omics technologies and their use in combination can define pathophysiological pathways that can be drug targets. Biomarker discovery and their use in diagnosis in RDs is a major pillar in RD research.