How cognitive and behavioural body-functions of children with ADHD are linked to their participation and environmental supports?

KAYA KARA Ö., Kara K., DOĞAN M., Tascioglu E. N., Kose B., ÇETİN S. Y., ...More

Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol.141, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 141
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ridd.2023.104592
  • Journal Name: Research in Developmental Disabilities
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Body-functions, Cognitive, Participation, PEM-CY
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Children with chronic conditions face participation restrictions and exclusions. Aims: To investigate how cognitive and behavioural body-functions are associated with 1) participation patterns and 2) environmental factors among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods and procedures: The study included 83 children with ADHD. Cognitive and behavioural body-functions were assessed with Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised Long-Version. The participation patterns of children were assessed with Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between cognitive and behavioural body-functions and (1) participation patterns at home, school and community settings, and (2) environmental supports and barriers. Outcome and results: In home setting, inattention and ADHD index which determine ADHD children from typically developing peers, were the strongest factors, explaining 24.9 % of variance in activities that mothers wanted to change. In school setting, presence/level of oppositional behaviours had the strongest effect on environmental barriers, with variation of 29.8 %. In community setting, the strongest factor explaining environmental helpfulness was anxious/shy behaviours (16.1 %). Conclusions and implications: When seeking to improve participation of children with ADHD both the cognitive and behavioural demands of chosen activities should be modified while creating environments that supports these challenges.