© Copyright CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RHEUMATOLOGY 2022.Objective Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is a major concern in RA. These patients have been included in clinical trials and in the post-marketing setting of RA patients using tofacitinib. We aimed to assess the real-life efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with RA-ILD. Methods RA patients with ILD diagnosis based on the HRCT images of the lungs from eight different centres recruited to study. As a control group, RA patients without ILD under tofacitinib were included. Demographic data, patients’characteristics, available pulmonary function tests regarding RA and RA-ILD at the visit in which tofacitinib was initiated and for the last follow-up visit under tofacitinib were recorded. Reasons for tofacitinib discontinuation were also recorded. Drug retention rates were compared by log-rank test. p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 47(42.6% male) RA patients with RA-ILD and a control group of 387 (17.8% male) patients without RA-ILD were included in analysis. After the median of 12 (9-19) months follow-up, mean FEV1%; 82.1 vs. 82.8 (pre/post-treatment, respectively, p=0.08), mean FVC%; 79.8 vs. 82.8 (pre/post-treatment, respectively, p=0.014) were stable and worsening was observed in 2/18 (11.1%) patients. Retention rates were similar (p=0.21, log-rank). In RA-ILD group, the most common cause of drug discontinuation was infections (6.3 vs. 2.4 per 100 patient-years). Conclusion Treatment strategy of RA-ILD patients is still based on small observational studies. A high rate of discontinuation due to infections was observed in RA-ILD patients under tofacitinib; however, RA-ILD patients were older than RA patients without ILD.