Peripheral blood smears of 43 patients (26 males, median age 18 months, range: 6-180 months) with nutritional iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) were examined for the presence of trilineage hematological dysplasia. Twelve patients were reexamined for dysplastic findings after achieving a normal Hb and hematocrit level for age by the end of 2-3 months of iron treatment. A control group of 17 age-matched healthy children were also included. Neutrophils with loss of membrane entirety and protrusions were remarkable in 34/43 (79%) in the IDA group versus 1/12 (8%) after iron treatment and none of the control group. Microspherocytes were seen in 9/43 (21%) of IDA patients. Additionally, trilienage dysplasia was observed in the bone marrow samples available in 3 of the patients. It has been shown that iron-deficiency results in cellular DNA and RNA alterations, cell-cycle G1/S phase arrest, and apoptosis. Rac GTPases have been shown to control actin cytoskeleton, influencing cell polarity, microtubule dynamics, and the cytoskeletal organization of hematopoietic cells. Thus, the findings described above in neutrophils and red cells suggest a plausible link between iron and the Rac GTPase gene family. It may be a new avenue for iron waiting for proof.