Ritonavir nanosuspensions prepared by microfluidization with enhanced solubility and desirable immunological properties

Karakucuk A., CANPINAR H., Celebi N.

Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, vol.27, no.10, pp.1027-1037, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10837450.2022.2145309
  • Journal Name: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1027-1037
  • Keywords: Nanosuspension, ritonavir, microfluidization, design of experiment, immunological evaluation
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.The objective of this study was to develop ritonavir (RTV) nanosuspensions (NSs) by microfluidization method. Particle size (PS) measurements were performed by photon correlation spectroscopy. Amorphous properties of the particles were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution studies were conducted in fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) medium. The flow cytometry was utilized to determine the lymphocyte sub-groups and immune response of NSs. RTV NSs were obtained with 400–500 nm PS. The crystal properties of RTV remain unchanged. The solubility of NS was enhanced five times. 57% and 18% of RTV were dissolved in FeSSIF medium for NSs and coarse powder. According to immunological studies, the prepared NSs did not significantly alter the ratio of CD4+/CD8+. Therefore, NSs may be a beneficial approach for the oral administration of RTV.