The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the inclinations of second and third molars during a two- to 2.5-year period in patients treated orthodontically both with and without premolar extractions. Records of 37 first premolar extraction patients and 33 nonextraction patients were examined. The pretreatment and posttreatment panoramic radiographs were analyzed. The angles were measured between the long axis of the third molar and the occlusal plane and between the long axis of the third molar and the long axis of the second molar. Changes in third molar angulations from pretreatment to posttreatment for two groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U-test. Statistical analysis revealed that mandibular third molars showed an improvement in angulation relative to the occlusal plane in the first premolar extraction group.