Background: There are several kinds of scoliosis-specific and general physiotherapeutic exercise methods used in scoliosis rehabilitation. But there is need for comparable studies on the effectiveness of different exercise approaches for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Objectives: Comparison of the effects of combined core stabilization exercise and bracing treatment with Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis and bracing treatment in patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: Thirty females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, who have moderate curves (20 degrees-45 degrees), were randomly divided into two groups. In addition to brace wearing for 4 months, one group received core stabilization exercise therapy, while the other received scientific exercises approach to scoliosis exercise therapy. The outcome measures were based on Cobb angle, angle of trunk rotation, body symmetry, cosmetic trunk deformity, and quality of life. Results: Thoracic and lumbar Cobb angles and trunk rotation angles, body symmetry, and cosmetic trunk deformity improved for both groups. Quality of life did not change in either group. The pain domain of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire improved in the core stabilization group only. Conclusion: Both treatment conditions including core stabilization with bracing and scientific exercises approach to scoliosis with bracing had similar effects in the short-term treatment of moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.