A Case Study on EEG Analysis: Embedding Entropy Estimations Indicate the Decreased Neuro-Cortical Complexity Levels Mediated by Methylphenidate Treatment in Children With ADHD

Cetin F. H., Baris Usta M., Aydın S., Guven A. S.

CLINICAL EEG AND NEUROSCIENCE, vol.53, no.5, pp.406-417, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/15500594211064008
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Page Numbers: pp.406-417
  • Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, entropy, complexity, methylphenidate, qEEG, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, UNDERACTIVATION, METAANALYSIS, BOYS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes



Objective: Complexity analysis is a method employed to understand the activity of the brain. The effect of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on neuro-cortical complexity changes is still unknown. This study aimed to reveal how MPH treatment affects the brain complexity of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using entropy-based quantitative EEG analysis. Three embedding entropy approaches were applied to short segments of both pre- and post- medication EEG series. EEG signals were recorded for 25 boys with combined type ADHD prior to the administration of MPH and at the end of the first month of the treatment. Results: In comparison to Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and Sample Entropy (SampEn), Permutation Entropy (PermEn) provided the most sensitive estimations in investigating the impact of MPH treatment. In detail, the considerable decrease in EEG complexity levels were observed at six cortical regions (F3, F4, P4, T3, T6, O2) with statistically significant level (p < .05). As well, PermEn provided the most meaningful associations at central lobes as follows: 1) The largeness of EEG complexity levels was moderately related to the severity of ADHD symptom detected at pre-treatment stage. 2) The percentage change in the severity of opposition as the symptom cluster was moderately reduced by the change in entropy. Conclusion: A significant decrease in entropy levels in the frontal region was detected in boys with combined type ADHD undergoing MPH treatment at resting-state mode. The changes in entropy correlated with pre-treatment general symptom severity of ADHD and conduct disorder symptom cluster severity.