Current concepts on the morphology of popliteus tendon and its clinical implications


Zabrzynski J., Huri G., Yataganbaba A., Paczesny L., Szwedowski D., Zabrzynska A., ...More

FOLIA MORPHOLOGICA, vol.80, no.3, pp.505-513, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 80 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.5603/fm.a2020.0106
  • Journal Name: FOLIA MORPHOLOGICA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.505-513
  • Keywords: popliteus muscle, tendinopathy, posterolateral corner, popliteus reconstruction, popliteus tendon, FIBULAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT, TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY, POSTEROLATERAL CORNER, FEMORAL INSERTION, ISOLATED AVULSION, INJURIES, MUSCLE, RECONSTRUCTION, ANATOMY, REPAIR

Abstract

In this review we described the anatomy and biomechanics of popliteus muscle and its tendon. Furthermore, we combined the anatomy with clinics and discussed a wide spectrum of disorders regarding the popliteus and its musculotendinous complex. There are three main anatomical regions of the popliteus musculotendinous complex: the proximal origin, the mid-portion, the distal part on the tibia. The unique localisation and various origins of the tendon, connected with structures such as fibular head, Wrisberg, Humphrey and posterior cruciate ligament, lateral meniscus, medial collateral ligament, give an implication to diagnosis and treatment. Popliteus dysfunction is often overlooked, that is the reason why diagnosis and treatment of its injuries is mostly insufficient. Repetitive or acute direct varus forces, when the tibia is in external rotation, and knee hyperextension or flexion with forced external rotation of the tibia, are the main mechanisms of trauma. Popliteus injuries mainly affect the athletic population and lead to severe activity limitations. Chronic disorders of the popliteus tendon, less known, are often described as tendinopathy and are frequently seen in runners. Their symptoms can mimic the lateral meniscal tears. On the other hand, high-energy traumatic injuries of the popliteus tendon often accompany complex, multi ligamentous injuries seen in competitive sports. We also presented the implication of popliteus tendon in knee arthroplasty, due to its particular exposition to iatrogenic trauma during surgery. The issues such as proper tibial component location and well-designed cut systems are crucial to avoid the popliteus impingement and preserve its structure.