This review presents the current state of the conventional methods, microfluidic based biosensors, and the commercial products used in the detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is one of the most important threats of nosocomial infections in many parts of the world. The early detection of MRSA in the specimens of the patients is important to enable the appropriate treatment, to decrease morbidity and mortality rates, and to manage control actions in the healthcare units. Thus, rapid and inexpensive diagnostic systems with high sensitivity and specificity are essential to prevent MRSA to be an emerging public health threat. The design and fabrication of new diagnostic systems necessitates working in collaboration between different disciplines to make new challenges in the field of clinical diagnosis and to meet the demands of clinicians. It is certain that in the near future. MEMS and nanotechnology based detection methods will take the place of current methods in clinical diagnosis. The evaluation of new trends for specificity, sensitivity, cost effectiveness, disposability, low weight, ease of use, and facile access should be taken into consideration. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.