SOIL DYNAMICS AND EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING, vol.152, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Due to the unique soil and morphological conditions prevailing in Izmir Bay basin, structural damage has been governed by site effects. Consistently, during October 30, 2020 M7.0 Samos Earthquake, which took place offshore of Samos Island, structural damage and life losses were observed to be concentrated in Bayrakli region of Izmir Bay, despite the fact that the fault rupture was at a distance of 65-75 km from the city of Izmir. Additionally, strong ground motions recorded in Izmir Bay showed unique site amplifications that were observed surprisingly at both rock and soil sites. Soil amplifications and duration elongations were mostly due to site effects governed by the response of very deep alluvial deposits of low plasticity. Similarly, due to very extensive faulting-induced fracturing and unusually stratified nature of rock sub-layers, unexpected long period amplifications were also observed at rock sites. These earthquake and site resonance effects were more pronounced in the period range of 0.5-1.5 s. When they were superposed with relatively coinciding natural period of 7-9 story residential buildings of Izmir City, it was concluded that the triple resonance effects among incoming rock ground motions, soil deposits, and the damaged buildings, amplified and prolonged the overall system response. Within the confines of this manuscript, the governing role of site effects leading to increased seismic demand was assessed, through a series of 1D equivalent linear, total stress-based site response assessments, the results of which clearly highlighted the variation of seismic demand in Izmir Bay.