Novel Drug Delivery Systems to Improve the Treatment of Keratitis


POLAT H. K. , Kurt N., AYTEKİN E., Pehlivan S. B. , ÇALIŞ S.

JOURNAL OF OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1089/jop.2021.0127
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: ocular, keratitis, drug delivery, nanoparticles, nanotechnology, NANOSTRUCTURED LIPID CARRIERS, IN-VITRO CHARACTERIZATION, FUNGAL KERATITIS, HERPES-SIMPLEX, OCULAR DELIVERY, BACTERIAL KERATITIS, ACANTHAMOEBA-KERATITIS, CONTACT-LENSES, ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE, MICROBIAL KERATITIS

Abstract

Keratitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the cornea caused by different pathogens. It can cause serious visual morbidity if not treated quickly. Depending on the pathogen causing keratitis, eye drops containing antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral agents such as besiloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, voriconazol, econazole, fluconazole, and acyclovir are used, and these drops need to be applied frequently due to their low bioavailability. Studies are carried out on formulations with extended residence time in the cornea and increased permeability. These formulations include various new drug delivery systems such as inserts, nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes, cubosomes, microemulsions, in situ gels, contact lenses, nanostructured lipid carriers, carbon quantum dots, and microneedles. Ex vivo and in vivo studies with these formulations have shown that the residence time of the active substances in the cornea is prolonged, and their ocular bioavailability is increased. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that these formulations successfully treat keratitis. However, it has been observed that fluoroquinolones are used in most of the studies; similar drug delivery systems are generally preferred for antifungal drugs, and studies for viral and acanthameba keratitis are limited. There is a need for new studies on different types of keratitis and different drug active substances. At the same time, proving the efficacy of drug delivery systems, which give promising results in in vivo animal models, with clinical studies is of great importance for progress in the treatment of keratitis.