Many of the common congenital pathologies surgically treated early in childhood may have long-term clinical and surgical complications when they come to adulthood. Surgically treated obstructive congenital pathologies will need follow-up for the resolution of obstruction and improvement of the upper tract. Of the children treated for vesicoureteric reflux, especially those with bilateral high grade, 5-20% may have a risk of hypertension and renal failure in the long term. Although bladder augmentation with an ileal segment in children is a procedure that can provide good results in terms of preservation of the upper urinary tract and renal function, and achieving continence, there are many long-term clinical and surgical complications. Many of the reconstructive procedures employed on the genitalia may have functional and cosmetic problems, which may require additional surgery in the long term. The rate of additional surgery is as high as 25% within 2-5 yr of follow-up after hypospadias surgery. Therefore, there is an obvious need of long-term follow-up for these children and urologists with expertise to recognize these complications and treat them. (C) 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.