Trends and associated factors of bottle-feeding in Turkey: dramatic change over the last three decades under the limited implemented code

Nergiz M. E., Yalçın S. S., Eryurt M. A.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH, vol.34, no.3, pp.1299-1313, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09603123.2023.2183941
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1299-1313
  • Keywords: Bottle-feeding, breastfeeding, code of marketing, baby-friendly hospital initiative
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The study aimed to examine the trends and associated factors of bottle-feeding among children aged 0-35 months. Data covering 11,205 mother-child pairs, from six recent Turkey Demographic and Health Surveys (TDHSs) were analyzed by using complex sample crosstabs and logistic regression. Bottle-feeding was on an upward trend from 33.0% to 51.5% from 1993 to 2013 and fell slightly 47.9% in 2018. Increasing trends of bottle-feeding were found in children aged 6-35 months, the East region, lower wealth index, maternal education under 5 years, Kurdish mothers, and the low antenatal care attendance. Multivariate analysis using data from TDHS-2018 showed that young maternal age, low birth weight and being 6-23 months of age were associated with higher rates of bottle-feeding. The prolonged bottle-feeding became widespread, and the bottle-feeding was common even in 35-month-old children. Interventions by the Government and stakeholders to minimize low rates of bottle-feeding should focus on high-risk groups.