ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH, vol.65, no.9, pp.2099-2118, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)
Forcings from above and below the ionosphere can cause disturbances that need to be detected and corrected for navigation systems. Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) are used to give corrections to aircraft navigation systems while landing. These systems use regional ionosphere monitoring algorithms to detect the anomalies in the ionosphere. The aim of this study is to understand occurrence of ionosphere anomalies and their trends over Turkey. A comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal variability of ionosphere is carried out for a midlatitude GPS network using Slant Total Electron Content (STEC). Differential Rate Of TEC (DROT), which is a measure of the amount of deviation of temporal derivative of TEC from its trend, is used to detect and classify the level of such disturbances. The GPS satellite tracks are grouped into north, east, west and over directions. The 24 h is divided into six time intervals. The percentage occurrence of each DROT category and the deviation from STEC trend in magnitude are calculated and grouped into satellite track directions and time intervals for 2010 (low solar activity), 2011 and 2012 (medium solar activity). The highest level of disturbances is observed in north and west directions, and during sunrise and sunset hours. The dominant periods of percentage occurrences are diurnal (22-25 h), semidiurnal (12-13 h) and terdiurnal (8-9 h) followed by quasi two-day and quasi 16-day periods. Disturbances corresponding to 50% < DROT < 70% are mostly visible during low solar activity years with magnitudes from 1 to 2 TECU. Geomagnetic storms can cause aperiodic larger scale disturbances that are mostly correlated with DROT > 70%. In 2012, the magnitude of such disturbances can reach 5 TECU. The anisotropic and dynamic nature of midlatitude ionosphere is reflected in the spatiotemporal and spectral distributions of DROT, and their percentage occurrences. This study serves a basis for future studies about development of a regional ionosphere monitoring for Turkey. (C) 2019 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.