Background The study aims to investigate the social, emotional, and behavioral challenges in children with a specific learning disability (SLD) and to identify the factors that accompany these problems by screening with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Methods The descriptive study was conducted on 278 children with SLD. Strengths and difficulties in children were evaluated by the SDQ applied to their mothers. The percentage of cases above the cut-off limits of the SDQ was calculated. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used for analysis. Results The mean (SD) total SDQ score was 15.8 (6.5). The percentage of scores of abnormal total difficulties in SLD was 47.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed that cases exposed to antenatal smoking had higher odds ratio of abnormal emotional symptoms and abnormal total difficulties; cases with poor familial income and the presence of a history of antenatal smoking exposure showed considerably higher odds ratio of conduct problems; cases with younger age at the diagnosis of SLD, dyscalculia, extreme duration of preschool screen time (>= 4 h), and history of hospitalization had significantly higher odds ratio for hyperactivity-inattention problems; and cases having shorter breastfeeding duration had higher odds ratio of peer problems compared to counterparts. Conclusion Children with SLD have a high score on the SDQ. Practitioners could especially give guidance and support to families with financial problems and those having a child with an early age at diagnosis, exposure to antenatal smoking, short breastfeeding period, early age of the first screen use, and long screen exposure duration during the preschool period.