In order to determine the effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on xylanase production by Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3, xylan in the xylanase production medium was replaced with different carbon sources. In order to reduce production time, glucose was added to the production media containing xylan. The effects of sucrose, maltose and lactose were investigated and maximum xylanase activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. Ammonium sulphate was the most appropriate inorganic nitrogen source for xylanase production and urea increased xylanase activity slightly.(C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.