Formation of Histamine, phenylethylamine and γ-Aminobutyric acid during sprouting and fermenting of selected wholegrains

ÇELİK E. E., Canli M., KOCADAĞLI T., Özkaynak Kanmaz E., GÖKMEN V.

Food Research International, vol.173, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 173
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113447
  • Journal Name: Food Research International
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Keywords: Biogenic amines, Cereal sprouting, Germination, Neuroactive compounds, Sourdough, Yeast fermentation
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Sprouting and fermentation are known to cause hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids in grains, which in turn can be converted into some neuroactive compounds by some specific enzymes.One of these compounds is γ-aminobutyric acid, which is directly related to stress management. This study invesitgatesthe effects of sprouting and fermentation processes performed under different conditions on the formation of γ-aminobutyric acid. Concomitant phenylethylamine and histamine formations were also investigated from the food safety point of view. The combined application of sprouting and fermentation increased the concentrations of histamine and phenylethylamine to a maximum of 44 ± 5 ​​ and 3.9 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Nevertheless, these values ​​did not reach the level that would cause undesirable effects. γ-Aminobutyric acid concentrations were found to reach levels comparable to γ-Aminobutyric acid -rich foods (maximum 674 ± 31 mg/kg) both with separate and combined application of sprouting and fermentation.