Selenoproteins are enzymes containing selenium in their structure and are involved in cellular processes such as defense against oxidative stress and cell survival. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of four selenoproteins (GPX1, TRXR1, SELP and SELW) in the hippocampus of intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients who underwent curative surgery. The selenoproteins is investigated at the mRNA level via RT-PCR and in situ hybridization and by immunostaining at the protein level. The expression of SELW exhibited a relative induction of more than tenfold, and immunostaining findings provided evidence that this upregulation is confined to neurons. GPX1 was also upregulated 2.3-fold, and TRXR1 was downregulated between 70 and 20% in MTLE patients. The profound induction of SELW has been accompanied by GPX1 and displayed a strong correlation with BCL2 expression, suggesting a protective role for these selenoproteins, and may be an indicator of a defense mechanism in surviving neurons.