Investigation of the Frequency of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium in Men Living with HIV in Terms of Sociodemographic Characteristics and Behavioral Risk Factors HIV ile Yaşayan Erkeklerde Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis ve Mycoplasma genitalium Sıklığının Sosyodemografik Özellikler ve Davranışsal Risk Faktörleri ile Birlikte Araştırılması

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AYAZ CEYLAN Ç. M., Karakaplan N. D., İNKAYA A. Ç., ÇAKIR B., ÜNAL S., Zarakolu P.

Mikrobiyoloji bulteni, vol.57, no.3, pp.378-389, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.20239931
  • Journal Name: Mikrobiyoloji bulteni
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, EMBASE, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.378-389
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium in men living with HIV in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors. In this cross-sectional, single center study, all HIV-infected male patients, aged ≥ 18 years, including those being followed-up (n= 142) and the new admissions (n= 16) at Hacettepe University, Department of Infectious Diseases between March 1st, 2017 and May 1st, 2018 were included. After obtaining the informed consent form; age, follow-up days in STI-clinic, marital status, education, employment status; STI-related sign and symptoms, prior STI diagnosis, multiple sexual partners during the last year, exchanging sex for money, sexual orientation, drug use, condom use with regular and casual partner and also risk factors regarding partners were inquired as behavioural risk factors. A sample of first-voided urine of each participant was tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium by using nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) (BD-MAX system, BD Diagnostics, USA) and BD MAX Mycoplasma-Ureaplasma-OSR for BioGX, (BD Diagnostics, The Netherlands). All participants living with HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men were grouped as STI-positive and STI-negative and compared. For all statistical analysis, SPSS 24 software was used. During the period of 14 months; the data was determined as follows: median follow-up time was 1138 (IQR= 159.5- 1494.5) days, median age was 35 (IQR= 28-42) years, 73.3% were single, 68.3% were at least college graduates or had higher educational attainment, 78.1% were currently employed. Of the participants, 26.9% reported STI-related sign and symptoms, 50.0% at least one STI episode in the past. Nine (5.6%) M.genitalium, five (3.1%) N.gonorrhoeae, and four (2.5%) C.trachomatis were detected in the urine samples of 17 (10.7%) individuals. N.gonorrhoeae and C.trachomatis were detected simultaneously in only one patient's urine sample. STI-positive patients (n= 17) were determined to be younger compared to STI-negative group [(p= 0.02; 27 years (IQR= 24-37) vs 35 years (IQR= 28-42)], had prominent STI-related signs and symptoms (p< 0.001) and had more multiple sexual partners (p= 0.03). The median CD4+ T lymphocyte count were relatively lower (p= 0.03) in STI-positive patients and plasma HIV RNA level was higher compared to the STI-negative participants (p= 0.05). STI-positive MSM group were younger [p= 0.01; 26 years (IQR= 23.5-29) vs 33 years, (IQR= 28-40)], STI-related signs and symptoms were more prominent (p= 0.02), the frequency of exchanging sex for money/drugs among their partners (p= 0.03) was higher compared to their STI-negative counterparts. Among STI-positive heterosexual patients, the presence of STI-related signs and symptoms (p= 0.04), drug use among their partners (p= 0.04) and plasma HIV RNA level (p<0.01) were significantly higher. STI was identified as an important health problem in this series of men living with HIV, 63.0% of whom had MSM and had a relatively high education level and socioeconomic status. Young age, having multiple partners, drug use, exchanging sex for money/drugs were prominent among the participants and their partners. Public health studies should focus on preventing STIs in young people living with HIV who have behavioral risk factors.