We report the genomic localization by homozygosity mapping and the identification of a gene for a new form of non-syndromic autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. The phenotype usually presents as non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma with fine whitish scaling on an erythrodermal background; larger brownish scales are present on the buttocks, neck and legs. A few patients presented a more generalized lamellar ichthyosis. Palmoplantar keratoderma was present in all cases, whereas only 60% of the patients were born as collodion babies. Six homozygous mutations including one nonsense and five missense mutations were identified in a new gene, ichthyin, on chromosome 5q33 in 23 patients from 14 consanguineous families from Algeria, Colombia, Syria and Turkey. Ichthyin encodes a protein with several transmembrane domains which belongs to a new family of proteins of unknown function localized in the plasma membrane (PFAM: DUF803), with homologies to both transporters and G-protein coupled receptors. This family includes NIPA1, in which a mutation was recently described in a dominant form of spastic paraplegia (SPG6). We propose that ichthyin and NIPA1 are membrane receptors for ligands (trioxilins A3 and B3) from the hepoxilin pathway.