FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.136, pp.1444-1452, 2013 (SCI-Expanded)
The aim of this study was to quantify glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose contents of honey samples using Raman spectroscopy as a rapid method. By performing a single measurement, quantifications of sugar contents have been said to be unaffordable according to the molecular similarities between sugar molecules in honey matrix. This bottleneck was overcome by coupling Raman spectroscopy with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS)) and an artificial neural network (ANN). Model solutions of four sugars were processed with PCA and significant separation was observed. This operation, done with the spectral features by using PLS and ANN methods, led to the discriminant analysis of sugar contents. Models/trained networks were created using a calibration data set and evaluated using a validation data set. The correlation coefficient values between actual and predicted values of glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose were determined as 0.964, 0.965, 0.968 and 0.949 for PLS and 0.965, 0.965, 0.978 and 0.956 for ANN, respectively. The requirement of rapid analysis of sugar contents of commercial honeys has been met by the data processed within this article. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.