Mineralogy and elemental contents of the Sirnak asphaltite, Southeast Turkey

Karayigit A. İ., Querol X.

ENERGY SOURCES, vol.24, no.8, pp.703-713, 2002 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2002
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00908310290086662
  • Journal Name: ENERGY SOURCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.703-713
  • Keywords: quality, mineralogy, major and trace elements, asphaltite, Sirnak, Turkey, TRACE-ELEMENTS, COALS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This study focuses on mineralogy and elemental contents of 7 Sirnak asphaltite samples of which 6 were collected from Avgamasya mines and 1 from Segurik mine in the southeastern part of Turkey. The samples were studied using proximate analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) techniques. The asphaltites on an as-received basis have low moisture contents (0.3-1.6%), high ash yields (38.6-12.7%), high total sulfur contents (5.39-6.80%), and low calorific values (4261-4548 kcal/kg). The mineral matter of the asphaltites from XRD is mainly made up of calcite, dolomite, pyrite, quartz, and minor quantities of feldspar; clay mineral (illite), and gypsum. The asphaltites from ICP-AES and ICP-MS proved to be enriched relative to Cd, Cr; Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, and Zn. Furthermore, concentrations of Bi, Dy, Er; and Gd in some samples exceed the currently available ranges for most world coals. Bulk chemical data from SEM-EDX confirm that Cd was detected in sphalerite and CdZn-sulfide, Ni in pentlandite, and Ni, Cu, Zn, V, and Cr traces in pyrites.