In this study, the coupling of magnetic enrichment of bacteria from real samples with rapid surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection was reported. The selective isolation and enrichment for the model bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) was performed using E. coli. (primary) antibody bound-magnetic gold (Fe3O4@Au) nanoparticles. Following isolation and enrichment, the rennet enzyme was used to cleave of casein modified Fe3O4/Au-PEI nanoparticles from primary antibody-bound bacteria to prevent the nanoparticle aggregation and provide the movement of bacteria on nitrocellulose membrane. In the first part of the study, optimization studies were carried out namely; the amounts of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), polyethyleneimine coated magnetic gold (Fe3O4/Au-PEI) nanoparticles, casein and rennet enzyme. The SERS signals of DTNB (5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) molecule were collected on the test line and a calibration curve was plotted by using signal intensities. The correlation between the concentration of E. coli and SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 10(1)-10(7) cfu/mL (R-2 = 0.984, LOD = 0.52 cfu/mL and LOQ = 1.57 cfu/mL). The selectivity of the paper-based lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was examined with Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus), Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) which did not produce any significant response compared with E. cob: measurement. Finally, the developed paper-based LFIA was tested with urine and milk samples. The obtained SERS results were compared with a plate counting method results which were in a good accordance. The developed method was found as rapid and sensitive to E. coli with a total analysis time of less than 60 min.