We introduce briefly surface modification of clay minerals, structure, properties and, characterization techniques of polymer-clay (PCN's) nanocomposites. Organically modified layered-silicates or nanoclays have become an attractive class of hybrid materials due to their prospective use in a great variety of applications from industry to health. For design, synthesis and characterization for potential biomedical nanocomposites, antitumor-active copolymer; poly(DHP-alt-MA) were used to prepare copolymer/clay nanocomposites. The functional copolymers, having a combination of rigid/flexible linkages and an ability of complex-formation with interlayered surface of organo-silicate, and their nanocomposites have been synthesized by interlamellar complex-radical copolymerization of intercalated monomer complexes of maleic anhydride (MA) and 3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyran (DHP) with three alkyl ammonium salts surface modified bentonite and monomer mixtures. Poly(DHP-alt-MA) pristine copolymer and poly(DHP-alt-MA)/organically modified bentonite nanocomposites were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), HR-Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM methods.