The Mediterranean Basin has distinct vegetation types shaped by fire, herbivory, and various human activities. Based on data from 83 belt transects of 10 x 40 m in 28 study sites for five physiognomic vegetation types (semi-closed forest, open forest, closed shrubland, open shrubland, and scrubland) in southwestern Anatolia (Turkey), we analyzed woody species diversity, woody community composition, and vegetation structure of study sites. We used the growth form and regeneration strategy for functional comparisons of physiognomic vegetation types. We found clear distinctions in diversity, species composition, and functional structure of woody plant community across five physiognomic vegetation types. The forest-shrubland-scrubland distinction was the most apparent one. Despite similarities in the woody species richness and Shannon diversity, open and closed vegetation states of forests and shrublands also differed regarding the density and cover of mature individuals and the density of saplings in different functional groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses and indicator species analyses also indicated clear distinctions among physiognomic vegetation types and openness states. Our findings indicate the necessity of a more complex description of vegetation types in the Mediterranean Basin. The results suggest that open and closed vegetation states of forests and shrublands are functionally distinct vegetation types. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2022.2036845.