Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Goose Meat

ÖZ F., KIZIL M., Celik T.

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, vol.40, no.5, pp.1047-1053, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jfpp.12685
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1047-1053
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic and/or carcinogenic compounds formed naturally during cooking of proteinaceous food such as meat and fish. In the present study, the effect of seven cooking methods (boiling, grilling, pan-frying without fat or oil, pan-frying with oil, deep fat frying, oven and microwave) on the formation of HCAs in goose breast and leg meats was evaluated. Varying levels of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (up to 2.42ng/g), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (up to 0.08ng/g), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (up to 0.21ng/g), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (up to 0.80ng/g), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (up to 0.09ng/g), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (up to 0.10ng/g), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (up to 0.12ng/g) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (up to 0.24ng/g) were detected. No 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine was detected. The highest total HCAs amount for breast and leg meats belonged to microwaved breast meat (2.20ng/g) and boiled leg meat (2.42ng/g).