The effect of nonpharmacologic interventions for muscle cramps and restless-leg syndrome in hemodialysis patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials


Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, vol.27, no.4, pp.636-654, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/1744-9987.13968
  • Journal Name: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.636-654
  • Keywords: cramping, hemodialysis, hemodialysis patients, meta-analysis, restless leg syndrome
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


© 2023 International Society for Apheresis and Japanese Society for Apheresis.Introduction: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of the nonpharmacologic interventions on muscle related symptoms including cramping and restless leg syndrome in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Articles published between 2002 and 2022 were searched in six databases. The standardized mean differences were determined by the upper and lower limits of 95% confidence intervals. Publication bias was assessed by conducting the Egger test and examined visually using a funnel plot. Results: Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. The types of interventions included exercise (n = 5), aromatherapy (n = 5), reflexology (n = 3), massage (n = 1), and acupressure (n = 1). The methodological quality assessment revealed 13 studies were strong quality, while only one study was moderate quality. The Egger test indicated no significant publication biases. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals can use non-pharmacological methods to manage muscle-related symptoms because of not only beneficial effects but also it is practical, well-tolerated, easy integrated into the treatment and care.