Morphological analysis of active Mount Nemrut stratovolcano, eastern Turkey: evidences and possible impact areas of future eruption

AYDAR E., GOURGAUD A., Ulusoy I., DIGONNET F., LABAZUY P., Sen E., ...More

JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH, vol.123, pp.301-312, 2003 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 123
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0377-0273(03)00002-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.301-312
  • Keywords: Turkey, Nemrut, volcano, morphology, image analysis, impact area, HAZARD ASSESSMENT, MERAPI VOLCANO, DEBRIS FLOWS, ANATOLIA, MEXICO
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Mount Nermut, an active stratovolcano in eastern Turkey, is a great danger for its vicinity. The volcano possesses a summit caldera which cuts the volcano into two stages, i.e. pre- and post-caldera. Wisps of smoke and hot springs are to be found within the caldera. Although the last recorded volcanic activity is known to have been in 1441, we consider here that the last eruption of Nemrut occurred more recently, probably just before 1597. The present active tectonic regime, historical eruptions, occurrence of mantle-derived magmatic gases and the fumarole and hot spring activities on the caldera floor make Nemrut Volcano a real danger, for its vicinity. According to the volcanological past of Nemrut, the styles of expected eruptions are well-focused on two types: (1) occurrence of water within the caldera leads to phreatomagmatic (highly energetic) eruptions, subsequently followed by lava extrusions, and (2) effusions-extrusions (non-explosive or weakly energetic eruptions) on the flanks from fissures. To predict the impact area of future eruptions, a series of morphological analyses based on field observations, Digital Elevation Model and satellite images were realized. Twenty-two valleys (main transport pathways) were classified according to their importance, and the physical parameters related to the valleys were determined. The slope values in each point of the flanks and the Heim parameters H/L were calculated. In the light of morphological analysis the possible impact areas around the volcano and danger zones were proposed. The possible transport pathways of the products of expected volcanic events are unified in three main directions: Bitlis, Guroymak, Tatvan and Ahlat cities, the about 135 000 inhabitants of which could be threatened by future eruptions of this poorly known and unsurveyed volcano. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.