Localization and characterization of cracks in clay-rocks using frequency and time-domain induced polarization


Okay G. , cosenza p., ghorbani a., CAMERLYNCK c., CABRERA j., FLORSCH n., ...Daha Fazla

GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, cilt.61, sa.1, ss.134-152, 2013 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 61 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2013
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2012.01054.x
  • Dergi Adı: GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.134-152

Özet

Induced polarization (IP) is a geophysical method that is potentially sensitive to the presence of cracks in porous rocks and therefore to damage. We performed time-domain and frequency domain IP measurements at the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL, Aveyron, France) in areas where different types of cracks are observed. These cracks correspond to both tectonic fractures and new cracks associated with stress release and desiccation resulting from the excavation of a gallery. These measurements were performed both in eastern and northern galleries of the test site. The eastern gallery was excavated in 1996 while the northern gallery was excavated recently in 2008. This gives us the opportunity to study the electrical characteristics of the excavation damaged zone surrounding the galleries with respect to the age of the excavation. Longitudinal profiles were performed along the floor of the galleries with 48 Cu/CuSO4 electrodes separated by a distance of 20 cm. Chargeability and resistivity were inverted using a Gauss-Newton iterative approach assuming an isotropic heterogeneous clay-rock material. The resulting IP tomograms show a correlation between high values of chargeability and the presence of calcite-filled tectonic fractures. X-ray analysis indicates that the presence of pyrite in these fractures is a potential source of the observed IP signals. The cracks associated with the mechanical damage of the formation exhibit low values of chargeability, on the same order of magnitude than the chargeability of the clay-rock matrix and are therefore hardly observable. A smaller IP response associated with the presence of these cracks is observed in the older gallery and this observation is qualitatively related to the desaturation process associated with these cracks. In a specific area of one of the galleries, the presence of calcareous nodules is observed to be an important source of anomalous chargeability. This signature seems to be associated with the presence of pyrite.