Objective- In response to tissue injury, the appropriate progression of events in angiogenesis is controlled by a careful balance between pro and antiangiogenic factors. We aimed to identify and characterize microRNAs that regulate angiogenesis in response to tissue injury. Approach and Results- We show that in response to tissue injury, microRNA-615-5p (miR-615-5p) is rapidly induced and serves as an antiangiogenic microRNA by targeting endothelial cell VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-AKT (protein kinase B)/eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling in vitro and in vivo. MiR-615-5p expression is increased in wounds of diabetic db/db mice, in plasma of human subjects with acute coronary syndromes, and in plasma and skin of human subjects with diabetes mellitus. Ectopic expression of miR-615-5p markedly inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration, network tube formation in Matrigel, and the release of nitric oxide, whereas miR-615-5p neutralization had the opposite effects. Mechanistic studies using transcriptomic profiling, bioinformatics, 3 ' untranslated region reporter and microribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation assays, and small interfering RNA dependency studies demonstrate that miR-615-5p inhibits the VEGF-AKT/eNOS signaling pathway in endothelial cells by targeting IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and RASSF2 (Ras-associating domain family member 2). Local delivery of miR-615-5p inhibitors, markedly increased angiogenesis, granulation tissue thickness, and wound closure rates in db/db mice, whereas miR-615-5p mimics impaired these effects. Systemic miR-615-5p neutralization improved skeletal muscle perfusion and angiogenesis after hindlimb ischemia in db/db mice. Finally, modulation of miR-615-5p expression dynamically regulated VEGF-induced AKT signaling and angiogenesis in human skin organoids as a model of tissue injury. Conclusions- These findings establish miR-615-5p as an inhibitor of VEGF-AKT/eNOS-mediated endothelial cell angiogenic responses and that manipulating miR-615-5p expression could provide a new target for angiogenic therapy in response to tissue injury.