The effectiveness of online Visually Enhanced Mental Simulation in developing casualty triage and management skills of paramedic program students: A quasi-experimental research study

Demir S., TUNÇBİLEK Z., Alinier G.

International Emergency Nursing, vol.67, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 67
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ienj.2023.101262
  • Journal Name: International Emergency Nursing
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Keywords: Visually Enhanced Mental Simulation, Triage, Simulation, Paramedic, Pre -hospital emergency care, Online education
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Paramedics who perform patient triaging in case of a mass casualty incident generally receive triage training during their undergraduate educational program. Triage training can be facilitated using various simulation modalities together with theoretical training. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of online scenario-based Visually Enhanced Mental Simulation (VEMS) on developing the casualty triage and management skills of paramedic students. Design: The study was conducted using a single-group pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design. Settings and participants: The study was carried out in October 2020 with 20 volunteer students studying in the First and Emergency Aid program of a university in Turkey. Methods: After the online theoretical crime scene management and triage course, students completed a demographic questionnaire and a pre-VEMS assessment. They then took part in the online VEMS training and eventually completed the post-VEMS assessment. At the end of the session, they filed an online survey concerning VEMS. Results: There is a statistically significant increase in the scores obtained by the students between the pre- and post-educational intervention assessment (p < 0.05). The majority of the students gave positive feedback concerning VEMS as an educational approach. Conclusion: The results show that online VEMS is effective in helping paramedic students acquire casualty triage and management skills and that students thought it was an effective educational approach.