Pneumococcal pneumonia remains a clear unmet medical need for adults worldwide. Despite advances in vaccine technology, vaccination coverage remains low, putting many people at risk of significant morbidity and mortality. The herd effect seen with paediatric vaccination is not enough to protect all older and vulnerable people in the community, and more needs to be done to increase the uptake of pneumococcal vaccination in adults. Several key groups are at increased risk of contracting pneumococcal pneumonia, and eligible patients are being missed in clinical practice. At present, community-acquired pneumonia costs over (sic)10 billion annually in Europe alone. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination could translate into preventing 200,000 cases of community-acquired pneumonia every year in Europe alone.