Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common congenital anomaly, with birth prevalence ranging from 1/500 to 1/1,000. A number of genetic loci have shown positive linkage or association results in European Caucasian populations. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether any of those loci have positive results in Turkish Caucasian CL/P families, and to perform a 10 cM genome scan to identify other regions potentially containing cleft susceptibility loci. Eighteen affected individuals with consanguineous parents were identified as part of our on-going studies of orofacial clefts in Ankara, Turkey. Genotyped were 383 genome-scan markers, and 70 additional markers, including markers in six candidate loci or regions on chromosomes 2,4,6,14,17, and 19 (TGFA, D4S175, F13A1, TGFB3, D17S250, and APOC2) that have been implicated in other studies of families with orofacial clefting. LOD scores (two point and multiple point) and family-based association statistics (TDT) were calculated between each of the markers and CL/P. For the LOD score calculations, an autosomal recessive model was assumed for the inheritance of CL/P. Of the six candidate markers, significant TDT results were obtained with TGFA (P = 0.05). The most statistically significant multipoint results from the linkage genome scan were between putative genes controlling risk of CL/P and regions on chromosomes 4, 10, 12, and 15 (maximum multipoint HLOD's of 1.25, 1.30, 2.73, and 1.28 respectively). These results demonstrate the power of small numbers of families with inbred probands to detect linkage and association. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.