A new species of Viola L., Viola yildirimlii M. Ding & Y Bagci sp. nov. from South Anatolia is described and illustrated. It is found on the rocky slopes of Aladag National Park, in the county of Adana, south Turkey, at an elevation of 1800 m. It belongs to Viola, subsect. Viola, and is similar to the Turkish endemics Viola isaurica Contandr. & Quezel and V kizildaghensis M. Ding &. Yddirimli. Diagnostic morphologic characters for a detailed discrimination from two similar taxa and other Turkish Eflagellatae species are discussed. (C) 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 141, 477-482.